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摘要

本篇出處 植物病理學會刊 24:1 2015.03[民104.03] 頁37-52
篇名 臺灣市售水生植物線蟲相調查
作者 黃思頴 ; 蔡東纂 ; 顏志恒 ; 陳珮臻
中文摘要   本研究針對台灣20個分類科雙子葉植物以及5個科單子葉植物,共76種市售水草進行線蟲相調查。結果顯示雙子葉植物共有6個分類科腐生性線蟲以及4個分類科之獵食性線蟲,包括腐生性線Chronogasteridae、Diplopeltidae、Leptolaimidae、Mesorhabditidae、Rhabditidae和Tripylidae科;獵食性線蟲Actinolaimidae、Anatonchidae、Cyanotholaimidae和Dorylaimidae科,植物寄生性線蟲則僅有葉芽線蟲屬,其中黃菊花草上可分離到的葉芽線蟲數量最高。單子葉植物線蟲相調查結果發現8個分類科之腐生性線蟲Cephalobidae、Chronogasteridae、Leptopaimidae、Mesorhabditidae、Panagrolaimidae、Plectidae、Rhabditidae和Tripylidae科,以及9個科之獵食性線蟲Actinolaimidae、Aporcelaimidae、Belondiridae、Dorylaimidae、Metateratocephalidae、Mononchidae、Mylonchulidae、Sphaerolaimidae和Tylencholaimellidae科,植物寄生性線蟲除了葉芽線蟲屬外,亦有穿根線蟲屬(Hirschmanniella)以及根瘤線蟲屬(Meloidogyne)。本研究調查結果顯示腐生性線蟲的種類以Chronogasteridae科出現頻率最高;獵食性線蟲則以Dorylaimidae科出現次數最多,推測因水生植物可提供該兩種線蟲族群主要食物來源,故使線蟲族群大量繁衍。僅有三屬植物寄生性線蟲由水生植物分離出,其中葉芽線蟲可能為新種;穿根線蟲因只分離出兩隻,故只能將其分類地位鑑定至屬。根瘤線蟲於榕類植物根系上可造成明顯結瘤,雌蟲經由陰門膜紋鑑定,推測為花生根瘤線蟲(M. arenaria)。增幅五個培養後之純系根瘤線蟲族群COII區間,皆可得一1700bp大小之條帶,再利用SCAR引子對進一步確認根系中有花生根瘤線蟲以及南方根瘤線蟲之複合感染現象。
英文摘要   Free-living, predatory and plant-parasitic nematodes that associated with the commercial submerged aquatic plants were surveyed in the study. Seventy-six species from 20 dicotylendonous families and 5 monocotylendonous families were investigated. Six families of free-living nematodes Chronogasteridae, Diplopeltidae, Leptolaimidae, Mesorhabditidae, Rhabditidae and Tripylidae were found to associate with aquatic dicots. The predatory nematodes in the families of Actinolaimidae, Anatonchidae, Cyanotholaimidae and Dorylaimidae were attained from aquatic dicots. Only one genus of plant-parasitic nematodes, identified as Aphelenchoides, was isolated from aquatic dicots, and the Cabomba aquatic plants harbored the greatest amount of Aphelenchoides spp.. From monocotylendonous aquatic plants, free living nematodes in the families of Cephalobidae, Chronogasteridae, Leptopaimidae, Mesorhabditidae, Panagrolaimidae, Plectidae, Rhabditidae, and Tripylidae were detected. Nine families of predatory nematodes in the families of Actinolaimidae, Aporcelaimidae, Belondiridae, Dorylaimidae, Metateratocephalidae, Mononchidae, Mylonchulidae, Sphaeroliamidae and Tylencholaimellidae were found from aquatic monocots. Parasitic nematodes belonged to Aphelenchoides, Meloidogyne and Hirschmanniella were also found from aquatic monocots. Free-living nematodes Chronogateridae and predatory nematodes Dorylaimidae were the two dominant families found in this survey, suggesting the aquatic plants might provide the main food resources and a suitable habitat for their populations. There were only three genera of plant-parasitic nematodes found in this survey. The Aphelenchoides spp. from C. aquatic might be a new species. There were only two Hirschmanniella females isolated in this survey, which were not sufficient for species identification. Significant galling symptoms caused by Meloidogyne spp. were observed on the anubias roots. The morphology of perineal pattern indicated the root knot nematodes might be M. arenaria. The mDNA COII region from five single female populations all yielded an approximately 1.7 kb fragment, and the SCAR-PCR yielded specific bands, indicated that the root knot nematodes found on anubias were a mixture of M. arenaria and M. incognita.